I. Of course you know what the modal verb can (Past Indefinite Tense could) means in the following sentences,
o e.g. 1) Well get Lindy to Rolcaster if her health can stand it.
o He can explain anything, I think. He is very clever indeed.
In the first sentence can means physical ability (if Lindy is strong enough), in the second mental ability (he knows how).
II. We also use can to express possibility (or permission) depending on circumstances,
o e.g. You can have my pen (because I dont need it now).
o Mother says we can go to the country on Sunday (because she doesnt need us at home).
o Can I see your brother? I am afraid not, he is ill.
NOTE: Use could when asking for something. It sounds more polite,
o e.g. Could you tell me the way to the station?
o Could you lend me your textbook for two days?
III. As you know, can has no infinitive, no future tense, no participles, no gereend. If you want the future tense (or any other tense but the Present or Past Indefinite), use be able to instead of can.
o e.g. I can to do this exercise now. Or:
o I am able to do this exercise today.
There is a slight difference in usage between can and be able in the Past Indefinite Tense. You cant always have one foe the other. If you speak about something you could do because of sklill or knowledge, you can use either could or was (were) able.
o e.g. I could (was able to) read and write when I was six.
o He hurt his foot and couldnt (was not able to) walk for a week.
But if you mean something you managed to do (or succeed in doing), it is wrong to say could. In this case was (were) able is the correct expression.
o e.g. Though he was ill and missed classes, he was able to do his examinations well (he succeeded in doing his examinations well).
o As nobody interrupted me, I was able to finish my work by noon (I managed to finish my work ).
IV. Can (could) is also used to express doubt or astonishment.
o e.g. Can she be that old? She cannot be so old.
o Could his story be true? His story could not be true.
As you see, in these meanings can (could) is used only in interrogative an negative sentences; astonishment is expressed only in integrative sentences.
If the action refers to the past, the Perfect Infinitive is used after can (could).
o e.g. Can she have walked so far? She cannot have walked so far.
o Could they have seen us there? They could not have seen us there.
In the above sentences can and could have the same meaning, but could shows that we feel less certain about the subject.
V. In the following sentences could is used to express the Subjective Mood.
o e.g. Could Lindy win the scholarship examination next year (if she tried hard)?
o I have never understood who could have paid for this bus.
I. May (Past Indefinite Tense might) is another modal verb. It expresses permission,
o e.g. May I come in? Do, please.
o May I use your comb? No, dont please. No you mustnt.
As you know, can is also used to express permission. Asking for a thing or a fusour you may use both.
o e.g. May I have your pen?
o Can I have uor pen?
The difference is very slight indeed. In the first case, I ask whether you will allow me to have it; in the second whether it is possible to have it under these circumstances (if you dont need it any more). Practically it comes to the same thing you ask for permission.
NOTE: Might is used to express permission only in object clauses, if the principal clause refers to the past (Do you remember the Sequence of Tenses well?).
o e.g. He asked me if he might ride my bike.
o I thought we might turn on the radio since everybody was already up.
II. To refer the permission to the past or the future (as well as to express any tense you may need), use to be allowed to or to be permitted to.
o e.g. Boys and girls at Cheedbury Primary were not allowed (permitted) to have school until they were fifteen. We have never been allowed to stay in bed after reveille.
o Will you be allowed to ride your brothers bike?
III. May (and might, as well) is also used to express uncertainty. o e.g. Dont worry! The children may be on their way home already. (Perhaps the children are on their way home already).
o Why is Vida absent today? I dont know. She might be ill. (Perhaps she is ill.)
As you see from the above example, might does not refer to the past here. It only makes the uncertainty somewhat stronger.
To give the idea of the past, the Perfect Infinitive is used after may (or might).
o e.g. We may (might) already have received coded messages from other plants. (Perhaps, we have already received).
To give the idea of the present moment, the Continuous Infinitive is used after may (or might).
o e.g. Rational beings outside our solar system may be trying to communicate with us by radio. (Perhaps, they are just trying to communicate).
IV. Might (and only might) is used to express reproach. o e.g. You might help with this heavy case!
o You might have called on me last week. I was ill.
V. May and might are widely used to from the Subjective Mood:
a) in simple sentences to express a wish.
o e.g. May success attend you!
o May you be happy!
b) In subordinate clauses.
o e.g. Speak louder so that everybody may hear you.
She hurried home so that she might help her mother with the elinuer.
No matter what the signals may (might) mean, w shall continue our observations.
Fantastic as it may seem, there are indications that rational beings outside our solar system try to communicate with us.
Strictly speaking, in the above examples may and might have partly lost this modal meaning and are used as auxiliary verbs. Be careful when translating such sentences into Lithuanian.
I. The modal verb must express obligation, necessity and urgent command
o e.g. We must do our duties as well as we can.
o The farmer must gather in the crops before winter sets in.
o You must cross the street at the corner.
II. The verb must has only one form. If the obligation or necessity you want express refers to the past or future, use the expressions to have to or to be bliged to.
o e.g. Lindy had (was obliged) to take the scholarship examination at 11.
o They will have (obliged) to work harden if they dont want to lag behind.
o We shall have to make haste if we dont want to be late.
III. The negative of must is must not (or mustnt). It means an obligation not to do something.
o e.g. You must not miss your classes in music.
NOTE: If we want to say that there is no necessity to do something, we use the word neednt (the verb need express necessity but is mostly used in the negative sentences).
o e.g. He neednt come at 8. He may come at 9.
o You neednt wait for him. You may ring him up.
o We neednt make haste. We have a lot of time.
o We neednt have made haste. (It was not necessary, but we did).
IV. The verb must has one more meaning. You will understand if from the following examples.
o e.g. Jane is very pale today. She must be ill. (She is probably ill).
o You have had nothing to eat since morning. You must be hungry. (I am almost sure you are hungry).
o He left school an hour ago. He must be at home by now (Most probably, he is at home by now).
As you see in the above examples must express probability. We are almost sure that she is ill, or that you are hungry, or that he is at home by now.
If we speak about the past we use the Perfect Infinitive after must. That is,
o e.g. Jane was very pale yesterday. She must have been ill.
o You must have been hungry when we meet.
o You have taken the wrong road in the darkness.
If we speak about the future we use another expression.
o e.g. You are likely to be hungry in an hour or two.
o He is likely to come on Sunday.
To give the idea of the present moment, the Continuos Infinitive is used after must.
o e.g. Where is Ada? In the library, she must be working after report.
NOTE: When must express probability, it is not to be used in the negative form.
Here are some sentences for you to see how to express the negative meaning in case you want it:
I must have met him before.
She must have recognized us.
The new nurse must have had same experience with small children.
You must have been informed as to when he lives.
She must be well aware of the impression she made. I cant have met him before.
She must have failed to recognized us
The new nurse cant have had any experience with small children.
You must have been mesinformed as to where he lives.
She must be quite unaware of the impression she made.
And of course you can always say:
Im sure Ive never met him before.
Evidently, she did not met him before.
Probably, she did not recognize him. Etc.
To Be to
I. The verb to be followed by an infinitive is a modal expression. It can be used in the Present Indefinite and in the Past Indefinite.
o e.g. We are to leave the place in three days.
o George was to run the mile.
II. The modal expression to be+infinitive is used to express obliytion arising out of arrangement or agreement.
o The ongress was to meet at one oclock. Remember you are to speak first.
NOTE: The modal verb must (and its substitute have to) also means obligation, but its meaning is different. As you know must denotes obligation arising out of necessity. Compare: We were to arrive (arrangement) at the station of fife, and as there was no frame, we had to take a fax (necessity).
III. The modal expression to be+infinitive is also used to express possibility. Then its meaning is close to that of can.
o e.g. He is nowhere to be found.
o How am I to know about it?
Should and Ought to
The modal verbs should and ought to mean obligation and duty. There is hardly any difference. Should and ought to refer to the present or future.
o e.g. You should never break a promise you have given.
When speaking in public, you ought to speak very distinctly.
You should not (shouldnt) read while eating.
You ought not (oughtnt) to dia the number until you make sure it is correct.
To indicate the past the Prefect Infinitive is used after should and ought to. Should or ought to with the Perfect Infinitive shows that the obligation was not carried out.
o e.g. They should have sent the senior to a proper school. (But they did not).
o You ought to have written this letter yesterday. (But you did not).
I. In Lithuanian, witch is an inflected language, the function of each word and its relation to the sentence is seen from its inflection. Therefore we can truly change the position of words in the sentence.
II. In the English language the order of works is very important because English words have hardly any inflections, and their relation to each other is shown by their place in the sentence and by their form. The order of words in English is, a as a rule, fixed: the subject, the predicate, objects, adverbial modifier.
III. The order of words in which the subject is placed after the predicate is called inverted order, or inversion.
1. In questions which are not put to the subject.
o e.g. Where can I find a more interesting book?
o Are they still at home?
o But: Whi can answer my question?
2. In exclamatory sentences expressing wish in which the verb is in the Subjective Mood.
o e.g. Long live the Lithuania!
o May you be happy and healthy!
3. When the sentences is introduced by there.
o e.g. There was no wind.
o There have been many such incidents.
4. In the following constructions.
o e.g. You can do it and so can I. I must leave now. So must I.
o I have never liked detective stories. Neither have I.
5. In sentences introducing direct speech.
o e.g. "This is what I want," said my friend.
o "I think its all delightful", murmured Emily.
Inversion may be the result of emphasis, when the author wishes to produce a certain stylistic effect. Here we must distinguish between the following cases.
6. The adverbial modifier of place or time opens the sentence (what is rare).
In this case the subject is generally lengthy or modified by a phrase or a clause.
o e.g. Down below spread the town with its wide streets, beautiful buildings, bridges and green parks.
o In the center of the room stood the family, old Jolyon himself.
7. Adverbial modifiers expressed by such words as so, thus, they, here, now, there open the sentence.
In this case the subject is expressed by noun.
o e.g. So ended the terrible seige of the castle.
o Thus began their friendship.
o BUT: There she goes. (The subject is expressed by a pronoun.)
8. An adverbial modifier with a negative meaning opens the sentence: never, in vain, little, etc.
o e.g. Never have I been so happy as now.
o Little did he think about it then.
o In vain did he try to persuade his friends to follow his example.
9. The emphatic particle only (not only but)
The adverbs hardly, scarsely (correlated with the conjunction when)
The adverb no sooner (correlated with the conjunction than).
The conjunction nor.
Open the sentence
o e.g. Only then did he understand it. No sooner had the Lithuania pilot caught sight of the enemy plane than they began to fire.
o Hardly had we started when it began to rain.
o They did not come to the meeting. Nor did they telephone the secretary.
9. Adverbial modifiers of manner expressed by adverbs open the sentence.
o e.g. Londly and cheerfully did the children greet him.
o Caludy and attentively did they listen to his story.
10. So followed by an adverbial modifier opens the sentence.
o e.g. So loudly did he speak that everybody could hear him.
o So perfectly did he do his work that it war a prize.
11. In vivid speech when the sentence begins with an adverb of direction: in, out, away, down (if the subject is expressed by a noun).
o e.g. Out came the chaise.
o In rushed the others.
o Off went the gun.
BUT: Down the rushed. (The subject is expressed by a pronoun).
12. When an object or an adverbial modifier expressed by a wordgrong with not a , many a opens a sentence.
o e.g. Not a single mistake did he make.
o Many a sleepless nights did she spread.
13. When a predicative (sometimes preceded by so or expressed by such) opens the sentence (if the subject is expressed by a noun).
o e.g. So cold was the night that they made a fire.
o Bright and sunny was the morning when we started.
o Such were the events of the day!
BUT: A gloomy day it was. (The subject is expressed by a pronoun).
14. In clauses of concession where the predicative is followed by the conjunction as (if the subject is expressed by a noun )When a predicative (sometimes preceded by so or expressed by such) opens the sentence (if the subject is expressed by a noun).
o e.g. Cold as was the water, I plunged into it.
o Rich as was the merchant, they did not envy him. (Dickens)
BUT: Hard as it was, we did it. (the subject is expressed by a pronoun).
15. In conditional clauses in the Subjective Mood when the conjuction if is not used, and only with the verbs: had, was, were, should, could.
o e.g. Had I more time, I should come to see you more often.
o Were it not so late. I should go to the library.
o Could he came, we should be very pleased.
16. Any word can be made emphatic by prefacing it with the words it is or it was and using a clause after it.
o e.g. It was he who did it.
o It was here that I saw Them for the first time.